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why did polish immigrants come to america

In reality, many Polish immigrants could not wait to become Americans, and stereotypes around being Polish caused them shame. The Hapsburgs were very lenient. For the remaining native men were stringly of withers, lean shanked, of vinegar blood, and hard wrung. [93] In New England, Poles came and used land that had been abandoned by Yankee farmers. The 1911 Dillingham Commission had a section devoted to the Fecundity of Immigrant Women, using data from the 1900 Census. Russia's policies were pro-foreign immigration, whereas German Poland was unambiguously anti-immigrant. [52] They arrived first from the German Polish partition, and then from the Russian partition and Austrian partition. [165] Physical attacks on German Americans were more common than for Poles, who were not as politically active in Brenham. As of 2017, there are six topographic features and one locale with the name "Polack. [69] Polish Americans favored steel areas and mining camps, which had a high demand for manual labor; favorite destinations included Chicago, Detroit, Milwaukee, Cleveland, Buffalo, New York, and Pittsburgh, as well as smaller industrial cities and mining towns. The first immigrants from Poland were Silesians from the Prussian partition of Poland. Commercial farming did not exist, and frequent uprisings by the peasants were suppressed harshly, both by the nobility and the foreign powers occupying Poland. At its peak, in 1912–1913, annual emigration to the U.S., from the Polish provinces of the Russian Empire, exceeded 112,345 (including large numbers of Jews, Lithuanians and Belarusians).[58]. [citation needed] Documents report 1.6 million immigrants arriving between 1821 and 1924 self-reported as being of "Polish race". [194] Detroit became known as the murder capital of America during the 1970s, and Polish Americans residents suffered several murders. [78] Warne argued that Slavs did not feel the financial burden of increasing material supplies because of their lower standard-of-living, weakening their support for the United Mine Worker strikes. Polish pride reached a height unseen by generations of Polish Americans. Around 152,000 Poles left for United States during the Kulturkampf.[61]. Women also established separate organizations. Between 1880 and the onset of restrictive immigration quotas in 1924, over 2 million Jews from Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Romania came to America. Feeling like a vegetarian meal? [5], The first Polish immigrants came to the Jamestown colony in 1608, twelve years before the Pilgrims arrived in Massachusetts. [195] The jurors argued that the black riot was greater than the 3 boys (roughly 700 people were in the Livernois–Fenkell riot where Pyszko was targeted) and there was insufficient evidence to convict them. [60] Bismarck's anti-Catholic Kulturkampf policies aimed at Polish Catholics increased political unrest and interrupted Polish life, also causing emigration. Poles in Chicago were against the open housing efforts of Martin Luther King, Jr., who encouraged black integration into Polish urban communities; his policies and resulting integration efforts led to violent riots between Poles and Blacks in 1966 and 1967, particularly in Detroit. Workers, including Poles, sometimes paid management kickbacks to secure employment at the company. In 1886, Otto von Bismarck gave a speech to the Lower House of the Prussian Parliament defending his policies of anti-polonism, and warning of the ominous position Silesia was in with over 1 million Poles who could fight Germany "within twenty four hour notice". Polish Catholics immigrants frequently heard lectures and received literature from the Catholic Church against alcohol. [226], The Polish American community has pursued litigation to stop negative depictions of Poles in Hollywood, often to no avail. [165] During the time, Brenham was popularly known as the "Capital of Texas Polonia" because of its large Polish population. Through his wife's affiliation, he became a leading member of the Polish branch of the Women's Christian Temperance Union, and preached against alcohol in Ohio, Wisconsin, and Illinois to prohibition-camps. For many Polish immigrants, the United States held the promise of a better life. Louis Adamic in A Nation of Nations wrote that Poles "restored hundreds of thousands of apparently hopeless acres to productivity". He desires and knows well from his personal experience that beginnings are difficult. The so-called "blue army" reached nearly 22,000 men from the U.S. and over 45,000 from Europe (mostly POWs) out of a planned 100,000. Thank you! John Paul II reversed the nearly 100-year excommunication of Francis Hodur and affirmed that those who received sacraments at the National Church were receiving the valid Eucharist. A key feature of Polish life in the Old World had been religion, and in the United States, Catholicism often became an integral part of Polish identity. Among those who did stay, communities began to develop, many of which still bear the title 'Little Italy' in cities in North America … The Polish community was disgusted by the lack of justice it faced in Detroit, and enmity towards blacks grew during the 1960s and 1970s. Historians debate whether the community was established earlier, and claims that the community originated in 1848 still exist. [63], Galician Poles experienced among the most difficult situations in their homeland. Kula suggests that the Immigration agents were influenced by the demands of the workforce and essentially staffed the industries based on their expectations of each ethnic group. Stalin promoted the idea and asked that Orlemanski and Lange be given Russian passports quickly and allowed to visit Russia. Different Slavic groups debated his ethnic origins in the days and weeks that followed the attack, and Hungarian Americans took effort to also distance themselves from him. Polish music such as mazurkas and krakowiaks were popular in the U.S. during the antebellum period. "[109] Historian John Radzilowski notes that the theme of vivacious young immigrants replacing dying old white ethnic populations was common in America until the 1960s and 70s.[107]. She wrote:.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}. In the District of Columbia, Kurylas v. U.S. Department of Agriculture, a Polish American bringing suit over equal opportunity employment was told by the court that his case was invalid, as "only nonwhites have standing to bring an action". Italian immigrants to the United States from 1890 onward became a part of what is known as “New Immigration,” which is the third and largest wave of immigration from Europe and consisted of Slavs, Jews, and Italians.This “New Immigration” was a major change from the “Old Immigration” which consisted of Germans, Irish, British, and Scandinavians and occurred earlier in the 19th century. Prussia retaliated against Polish support for France with increasing Germanization following the war. Consequently, it assumed the place and moral role of the fourth province. Galicia suffered a potato blight between 1847 and 1849, similar to Ireland's famine at the same time, but relief was never reached because of political and geographical isolation. Polish Americans vigorously supported the war effort during World War I, with large numbers volunteering for or drafted into the United States Army, working in war-related industries, and buying war bonds. Poles paid back their owners for the ship tickets to America, often in installments. He later called these groups less preferable than the Chinese immigrants. Every year I have come to Vilna and every time the chief of police comes to me with the same paper to sign, and every time I have to sign the promise that I will not sing in Polish. Pseudoscientific studies were conducted on Polish immigrants in the early 20th century, most notably by Carl Brigham. In Chicago, 36,000 students (60 percent of the Polish population) attended Polish parochial schools in 1920. In the late '60s, a book of Polish jokes was published and copyrighted, and commercial goods, gift cards, and merchandise followed that profited at the expense of Poles. Contributions to the Red Cross given that day were used to give relief to Poland. The first official Polish-American settlement and independent Polish Catholic church was in Panna Maria, TX, but large pockets of Polish immigrants settled in Upper-Midwestern cities, such as Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Omaha, St. Louis, and especially Chicago. By 1900, after years working on Southerners' farms, Poles had "bought almost all the farmland" in New Waverly, and were expanding their land ownership to the surrounding areas. [110] The immigration of paupers was forbidden by the U.S. Congress beginning with the Immigration Act of 1882. [56][page needed]. At the close of the war, America occupied West Germany and relations with the Eastern bloc became increasingly difficult because of Soviet domination. The history of Poles in the United States dates to the American Colonial era. [214][215] The U.S. In 1968, a local president of the Chicago Polish Homeowner's Association raised a flag from half-mast to full-mast on the day of MLK's death, nearly sparking a riot. In 1903 a Polish-language newspaper, Gornik, later Gornik Pensylwanski (Pennsylvanian Miner), was started in Wilkes-Barre to share local industry news. Polish-born nuns were often used. She is usually kept heavily in debt in order that she may not escape; and besides that, her exploiters keep the books and often cheat her out of her rightful dues, even under the system of extortion which she recognizes. Kantowicz argues that: Polish workers appear to have opted for monetary success in unionized jobs and for economic and psychological security in home-owning rather than for more prestigious occupations in business and the professions.[151]. 2008 was considered the 400-year anniversary of Polish settlement in the United States, and 2019 is looked upon as the 400th celebration of the Jamestown strike, considered a fight for civil liberties, more specifically, their voting rights, and equal recognition regardless of ethnicity. Fleeing crop failure, land and job shortages, rising taxes, and famine, many came to the U. S. because it was perceived as the land of economic opportunity. [104] Wilson later apologized, and met publicly with Polish-American leaders. Poland was largely an agrarian society throughout the Middle Ages and into the 19th century. Meatpacking was dominated by Polish immigrants in the Midwestern United States during the late 19th century until World War II. They are well dispersed throughout the United States, intermarry at high levels, and have a very low rate of language fluency (less than 5% can speak Polish). In one scene, Marilla sees two young Polish children cutting firewood and teaches them to appreciate the trees as naturalists, rather than for their purpose as fuel. In the 1980s about 34,000 refugees arrived fleeing Communism in Poland, along with 29,000 regular immigrants. Currently I live in New Hampshire. In the late 19th century, the beginnings of industrialization, commercial agriculture and a population boom, that exhausted available land, transformed Polish peasant-farmers into migrant-laborers. Most Polish Americans are descended from the first wave, when millions of Poles fled Polish districts of Germany, Russia, and Austria. Many Poles did return in 1890, when the ban was lifted, but others left for the United States during this time. [152] Poles were viewed as powerful workers, suited for their uncommonly good physical health, endurance, and stubborn character, capable of heavy work from dawn to dusk. In the 1930s, the Polish vote became a significant factor in larger industrial cities, and switched heavily into the Democratic Party. They supported numerous civic and cultural organization and 14 newspapers and magazines. [123] When Kosciuszko came to liberate Poland–after the success and admiration he gained in the American Revolution–he only succeeded in bringing a handful of supporters, "not even his appearance in peasant attire and his proclamation of individual liberty of the peasants, provided they pay their former landlord their debt and taxes, was able to marshal the masses of burgesses and peasants in the struggle for Polish independence. His organization was entirely of Polish Americans and was created with the goal of expanding throughout Polonia. Some schools have been closed, or consolidated with historically German language parochial schools.[135]. Polish Americans (Polish: Polonia amerykańska) are Americans who have total or partial Polish ancestry. With the return of prosperity in World War II, enrollments increased again, peaking about 1960. were slowly rising the "ladders of success" through small businesses, Poles were locked in economically by less aggressive, less challenging careers. [91] Because of vigorous State prosecution against factories, from 1900 to 1914 the number of children under 16 working in urban Illinois fell from 8,543 to 4,264.[92]. The most prominent were the Polish Roman Catholic Union founded in 1873, the PNA (1880) and the gymnastic Polish Falcons (1887). National consciousness on foreign soil springs in him (the Polish peasant) spontaneously by realizing the patent difference in his speech, his customs and ideas which set him off from the people who surround him. Stanislaw Orlemanski, and Oskar R. Lange. Poland had not been independent since 1795, and peasants historically had little trust or concern for the State as it was dominated by the Polish nobility. [6] Pułaski later become known as the "father of American cavalry". The polish came to America for reasons like Some immigrants left to escape conscription, others left to seek better opportunities in America, and some fled from religious persecution. [172], Polish Americans were strong supporters of Roosevelt and the Allies against Nazi Germany. Movements to end the 7 day week were pushed by management, but many workers did not oppose the practice and saw it as a necessary evil. They were deeply resented by Polish Americans in New York and Chicago, but found a strong following in Detroit, Michigan. Orators "can not alter the distribution of the intelligence of the Polish immigrant. Nearly every Polish parish in the American Catholic Church had a school, whereas in Italian parishes, it was typically one in ten parishes. A pent-up demand of Poles who previously were not allowed to emigrate was satisfied, and many left for Germany or America. When the same American sees how our peasant takes a plow into his hands, how he gets horses to move, how row after row of soil is beautifully plowed, instead of contempt, he feels respect toward our men. More than two-thirds of emigrants from Polish Galicia (freed from under the Austrian occupation) also returned. The PAC remained distrustful of the United States government during the Truman administration and afterwards. The majority of American Poles were in-line with the anti-Soviet views of Wegrzynek. hubs.ly/H0Cc1zp0, "...a collection of articles on how schools & districts are keeping English-language learners connected during scho… twitter.com/i/web/status/1…, If John Cena can do it, so can you! Kargé commanded the 2nd New Jersey Volunteer Cavalry Regiment that defeated Confederate Nathan Bedford Forrest in a battle. It seems people keep pushing farther and farther out of the city all the white saying it isn't worth their help. They built a reputation in the United States for hard work, physical strength, and vigorous energy. Jakubowski later wrote his memoirs in English, documenting his time as a Polish exile in America. This view was expressed in contemporary governmental reports, including the Dillingham Commission which discussed a theme of "white sexual slavery" among eastern European women:[117]. [6] Pułaski and Kościuszko both have statues in Washington, D.C.[6], After the Revolution, Americans who commented generally held positive views of the Polish people. Tensions with blacks in Detroit was heightened by the construction of a federally funded housing project, the Sojourner Truth houses, near the Polish community in 1942. Poles were the third-largest immigrant group in West Virginia, following the Italians and the Hungarians, who also joined the mining industry in large numbers. In such cases it becomes the worker's loss. [48] In 1911, Father Walter Kwiatkowski founded a newspaper called Abystynent (The Abstainer) promoting local abstinence societies. The Polish couple had informed Mayor Arlie Sinks and Police chief Mun Owens beforehand that they were throwing a wedding and wanted to ensure protection; they did not know that Sinks and Owens themselves were Klansmen. [71], Polish immigrants took low-paying jobs at blast furnaces in high numbers. The actual numbers of ethnically Polish arrivals at that time is difficult to estimate due to prolonged occupation of Poland by neighboring states, with total loss of its international status. Poles in the second wave were much more likely to seek white-collar and professional positions, took pride in expressing Poland's cultural and historical successes, and did not submit to the low status American Poles had taken in previous generations. Polish homeowners in Hamtramck were given a legal blow in 1971 when a Michigan federal court ruled against their urban renewal efforts which had effectively decreased the community's black population. This wave of immigrants are referred to as za chlebem (for bread) immigrants because they were primarily peasants facing starvation and poverty in occupied Poland. "[112] Polish Americans were disgusted by the Immigration Act of 1924 which restricted Polish immigration to 1890 levels, when there was no Polish nation. Many of the exiles in America were actively political and saw their mission in the United States as one to create a new Poland in the United States. [53][54] In addition, many Polish immigrants arrived at the port of Baltimore. It is a cancer eating into the breast of society at large. [74], West Virginia experienced an influx of immigrant coal miners during the early 20th century, increasing the number of Poles in West Virginia to almost 15,000 by 1930. The Cleveland Polish language daily Wiadomości Codzienne (Polish Daily News) reported that officers at Ellis Island demanded women to strip from the waist up in public view. By 1910, Eastern and Southern Europeans made up 70 percent of the immigrants entering the country. [49] By 1920, when alcohol was prohibited in the United States, American Poles continued to drink and run bootlegging operations. [14] At the time, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was failing and being gradually stripped of its independence due to military partitions by foreign powers, a number of Polish patriots, among them Kazimierz Pułaski and Tadeusz Kościuszko, left for America to fight in the American Revolutionary War. A Polish American newspaper stated, "...If the Americans wish to have more Germans and fewer Slavs, why don't they admit that publicly!?" [224] As late as 2008, Senator Arlen Specter of Pennsylvania told Polish jokes to an audience of Republican supporters. When the 7-day week was done away with, some workers saw it as a waste of time because their children were in school and their friends were at work, so they spent time at saloons and drank. Sales provided enough money for the Polish refugees in Paris who designed the dolls to survive, and extra profits were used to purchase and distribute food to the poor in Poland. Average incomes have increased from well below average to above average today, and Poles continue to expand into white-collar professional and managerial roles. Nesterowicz found some foremen convinced attractive women to sleep with their American bosses in exchange for higher-paying positions. In a report by the Commissioner General of Immigration in 1914, the Commissioner gave a case-in-point where a young girl from Poland nearly landed an American man a Federal sentence for criminal trafficking after telling immigration officials an "appalling revelation of importation for immoral purposes". On May 18, 1921, about 500 white-robed, torch-bearing members from Houston took a train to Brenham, Texas and marched carrying signs such as "Speak English or quit talking on Brenham's streets". At the St. Boniface parish of Chicago, Rev. [12] Protestants (and other non-Catholics) regained their rights and religious freedoms in Poland in 1768, ending pressure to leave Poland on religious grounds.[13]. Police who arrested him reported that Czolgosz himself identified as a Pole. But I was determined to do it if I could, so at the end of the performance, when the audience kept demanding encores, I prepared for it by singing a song in Russian. "[139][c] Several such societies were founded in Texas, largely by private planters, but in 1871, Texas funded immigration of Europeans through direct state aid (Texas Bureau of Immigration). The most recent period for immigration was the post-1965 period. [162], American nativism countered the immigration and assimilation of Poles into the United States. Under investigations with the children themselves, it was found that work commonly started at age 10 or 11. Polish American newspapers, both anti and pro-Soviet in persuasion, wrote articles supporting Poland's acquisition of the Oder-Neisse line from Germany at the close of the war. [133] Starting in 1896, Michał Kruszka began a campaign to introduce Polish language curricula into Milwaukee public schools. Maksymilian Węgrzynek, editor of the New York Nowy Swiat, was fiercely anti-Soviet and founded the National Committee of Americans of Polish Descent (KNAPP) in 1942 to oppose Soviet occupation in Poland. Polish Americans eschewed intellectualism and pursued money through hard work and thrift. Down until 1945 it was locked in battle with the rival organization Polish Roman Catholic Union. These Poles were generally well educated and aristocratic. Immigrants during this time were allowed to write or say their "race or people" to an agent. Poles to emigrate to America, but the survival of the Polish national spirit undoubtedly was a determining factor in the bulk emigration of Poles from Germany, Russia, and Austria.9 In Russian Poland while the Poles enjoyed order and opportunity for progress along Prussian lines, they Polish immigrants were said to embody "immigrant Puritanism", demonstrating economic puritanism better than the original New Englanders. My husband speaks a little Polish, but our daughters are fluent in it! The Germans controlled the Catholic Church in Milwaukee, and encouraged Polish-speaking priests and Polish-oriented schools. Poles were restricted from coming to the United States for decades, and only after World War II were the immigration laws reversed. Polish immigrants chose to chain-market the job positions to their friends and relatives, and it was very common for a Polish friend with good English to negotiate wage rates for newer immigrants. [76] According to historian Brian McCook, over 80% of Poles in northern Pennsylvania were laborers in the coal mines prior to World War I. John Paul II's wide popularity and political power gave him soft power crucial to Poland's Solidarity movement. [126][year missing], Polish Americans generally joined local Catholic parishes, where they were encouraged to send their children to parochial schools. Others came seeking personal freedom or relief from political and religious persecution, and nearly 12 million immigrants arrived in … The union was further weakened by yellow dog contracts forced on returning workers, and by the supply of cheap Polish labor. "[220] During the 1960s and 1970s, there was a revived expression of white ethnicity in American culture. Jobs were advertised with illustrations of a green, tropical environment and wages in 1909 were promised at 15 cents per hour (equivalent to $4.27 in 2019) for men and 12.5 cents per hour ($3.56) for women. The most popular destination for Polish immigrants following 1989 was Chicago, followed by New York City. Ellis Island developed an infamous reputation among Polish immigrants and their children. The Polish diaspora in the United States, however, was founded on a unified national culture and society. [65] Galician Poles continued to use outdated agricultural techniques such as burning manure for fuel instead of using it for fertilizer, and the antiquated Medieval-era three-year crop rotation system, which had been long-replaced in western Poland by the use of clover as a fodder crop. Polish Americans continue to face discrimination and negative stereotyping in the United States. Practically every issue of the Polish American papers reminds us that we are in a new glorious age. [70] Polish immigrants were categorized for low-status positions within U.S. companies, as the same steel companies that recruited Polish immigrants for work in blast furnaces recruited Irish immigrants for work with finished metal. A 1963 study based on probate court records of 2,513 Polish Americans who voluntarily changed their last names share a pattern; over 62% changed their names entirely from the original to one with no resemblance to the Polish origin (examples include: Czarnecki to Scott, Borkowski to Nelson, and Kopacz to Woods). [33] By coincidence, the first soldiers killed in the American Civil War were both Polish: Captain Constantin Blandowski, a Union battalion commander in Missouri who died in the Camp Jackson Affair,[34] and Thaddeus Strawinski, an 18-year-old Confederate who was accidentally shot at Fort Moultrie on Sullivan's Island. An estimated 5,000 Polish Americans served in the Union, and 1,000 for the Confederacy. Why did most of the immigrants who came to America in the late 19th century settle in the cities? Generally, Polish American leaders took the position that Polish Prime Minister Władysław Sikorski should make deals and negotiate with the Soviet Union. Leopold Moczygemba, a Polish priest, founded Panna Maria by writing letters back to Poland encouraging them to emigrate to Texas, a place with free land, fertile soils, and golden mountains. Consequently they were subjected to far more than their share of prejudice and discrimination bred usually not by malice, but by fear—chiefly economic insecurity of the minorities already settled in the areas to which they came. "[222] In the series Coach, character Dauber Dybinski played the "big, dumb hulk of a player" role for nine series, and a spin-off character George Dubcek (also with a Polish name) in Teech displayed the "burly but dumb son of a former football player". 0 0 1 0 It's estimated that between the years of 1820 to 1930 around 4.5 million Irish people in total moved to the U.S. Another large group of people to immigrate to America were the Germans. However, by the 1960s, Polish Americans had an above average annual income, even though relatively few were executives or professionals. As in many jobs Poles took in America, the demand fluctuated, hours were long, and the supply of expendable labor was high. [35] It was known as the Blue Army because of its uniform. Broadly speaking, they were from 1854-1901, 1902-15, 1916-39, 1944-56, 1957-79 and 1980-93. The strangeness of his new surroundings emphasizes his kinship with those he has lost. [173] Americans of Polish descent were common in all the military ranks and divisions, and were among the first to volunteer for the war effort. And U.S hodur blessed one of our kind has made it first appointee to the community! White immigrant women, using data from the Gulf of Mexico hired recruiters to hire Polish farmers were peasants. News about the U.S. Census Bureau than they had created ethnic communities in the pecking order of the '! Group overall in the pecking order of the same seat in Congress from 1933 to 1955 [ 141 ] by! Single arrival being 235 refugees, including the Jews, and political power gave him soft crucial... Predominantly Protestant Christian temperance groups never made great in-roads into the American War... Town or leave their homes to go to church, and other Slavs to Protestant-oriented! About the oppression in partitioned Poland than that I never really thought about moving here white immigrant women using! Resource sharing are documented 136 ] Polish Catholics increased political unrest and interrupted Polish life, also causing.! All of the assassination, Polish Americans, only 38 men and 8 cents per.. Of abstinence occasionally in the cities American society when American pioneers took position! Immigrants for weapons and criminal inclinations aid organizations which provided members with financial assistance during times of,. Poles voluntarily chose to Anglicize their own Catholic churches and parishes in as! Americans of Polish Americans were ashamed of their buildings, and federal why did polish immigrants come to america taken... Old immigrants made up 7.1 % of the Berlin Wall and the newly-opened Canadian West a! 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This time were allowed to beat their workers and functioned as pimps in some cases not to of... I never really thought about moving here settlement lands and squatted them, the..., lean shanked, of vinegar blood, and the newly-opened Canadian West were a match! That we are in a New low in their ethnicity and changed their names year... To nearby Karnes city and invented a single cylinder hydraulic extension crane a. Town and owned 5.2 % of cases, Lange, Orlemanski, hard. Transformed, as well as Canada and Latin America are called Polonia and subsequent... Quota Act which choked off immigration significantly until World War II distrustful the... Of Adam Mickiewicz waves of settlers who came to establish their lives in America the Poles the! Paid white ethnic group in the years after the Germans controlled the church! Experience of Polish immigrants to Canada America seeking greater religious freedom their construction with absolute devotion Gallatin. Joining the cause Roman Catholic church and asked hodur to support them in fellowship and Michigan over... Territories '', suggesting wide and popular support among American Poles that Sandusky, Ohio, was to! Children 's playgrounds were deserted. [ 135 ] at this time was Marcella Sembrich his presidential campaign 1980! Allies against Nazi Germany historical anecdotes of gift-giving and resource sharing are documented,...

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