Hannibal established his reputation for near invincibility when he won a battle at the Ticinus (Ticino) river near Pavia and again at the Trebia River in December 218 BCE. With his genius, Hannibal Barca, though, gained much ground, but eventually lost to the Romans in this war. Marcellus shipped large amounts of Greek art back to Rome in a novel method of impressing the populace with his success. The Second Punic war “was the greatest and most dangerous one Rome was compelled to fight on their way to the conquest of the Mediterranean. The First Punic War had been tremendously costly to both sides but Rome’s seemingly inexhaustible resources, especially its capacity to renew large naval fleets meant that, ultimately, Carthage could not compete with the Mediterranean’s newest superpower. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Roman, What were the outcomes of the second Punic War? In 226 BCE Hasdrubal had signed an agreement with Rome, concerned at Carthage’s expanding empire, not to cross the River Ebro in southern Spain, but Hannibal, now in overall command in Spain, was more ambitious. Carthage would briefly rise again for a Third Punic War 50 years later but its position as a great Mediterranean power was now lost forever. What were the outcomes of the second Punic War? b. ... Second Punic War begins. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. The difficult journey lost him a significant portion of his army but the losses were more to do with fighting hostile Gallic tribes and desertions than the elements. The consul Publius Scipio had been assigned an army with which to invade Spain and defeat Hannibal. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Remember to cite your sources. Rome forced Carthage to pay for damages after the war, so Carthage had very little left to pay the mercenaries. I will firstly provide a brief history of governance in the two societies and then depict the structural similarities before highlighting important differences. However, by the end of the second century, large numbers of slaves were pouring into Rome, either as prisoners of war or purchased abroad by the new wealthy class of Romans who now employed large staffs of domestic servants or invested as slaves as business ventures. Before Carthage could think about Rome, it first had to deal with the continued unrest closer to home. These were supplemented with sympathetic Gauls from northern Italy and the Carthaginian pressed on regardless. https://www.ancient.eu/Second_Punic_War/. One of the persistent rivals was the Carthaginians. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the Romans had their own great general Scipio Africanus, and it was he who attacked Carthage on home soil, beating Hannibal and delivering final victory. The outcome of these wars determined the nation to dominate the Mediterranean for years to come, and the largest of the wars was the Second Punic War. Rome was reeling but Hannibal was on his own, and he fatefully decided not to attack Rome itself. Further, Carthage could not make war without Rome’s permission, had to recognise the territories of the new Numidian king Masinissa, and pay in reparations to Rome the huge sum of 10,000 talents over the next half century. The Mercenary War (240-237 BC) Carthage had to pay its mercenary soldiers after the First Punic War, even though Carthage lost the war to Rome. The Iberians now gave up the Carthaginian cause and Rome had access to the enemy’s silver mines to boost its war effort. Rome had a far superior navy, but Carthage had the best commander in Hannibal. Wherever Hannibal was not, the Romans would attack. The Second Punic War broke out in B.C. However, all the Latin colonies and central Italy remained loyal to Rome and this meant that Hannibal’s new acquisitions had to be constantly defended. Cartwright, Mark. Rome thought it would be easy to defeat Hannibal, but Hannibal was full of surprises, including his manner of entering the Italic peninsula from Spain. 50,000 of the enemy were killed compared to 5,700 on Carthaginian side, most of those being Gauls. In 264 B.C., Rome became involved in what later became the Punic Wars. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. They were then herded back in the direction of the Carthaginians to cause havoc there. Hannibal destroys the Roman army at Cannae in the most severe defeat ever suffered by Rome. This war had the potential to completely alter the course of history. He had set off with 90,000 soldiers and 12,000 cavalry, and on arrival he had at his disposal only 20,000 men and half his original cavalry. When Scipio attacked Utica, the city proved more resilient than expected, and Carthage, meanwhile, assembled an army under Gisgo, son of Hasdrubal. Barca with his intelligent mind created traps for the Romans and defeated them on many occasions. Carthage declined and Rome declared war in March 218 BCE. Hannibal's Major Battles in Italyby Frank Martini (CC BY-SA). By now Carthage controlled half of the Iberian Peninsula. (300 words or more Original NO copy paste) Expert Answer . It would be a lesson well-learned and repeated again and again by the Roman army, now well-practised at fighting in multiple theatres simultaneously. Accordingly, Hamilcar Barca was despatched in 237 BCE to expand Carthaginian territory, which he did, establishing his base at Gades (Cadiz) and founding a new city of Acra Leuce. Battle of Cannae 216 BC. Web. What were the outcomes of the second Punic War? There followed another quick victory against a 4,000-strong Carthaginian cavalry force. (Punic Wars, 2009) However, the Romans retaliated, winning engagements fought at Spain and North Africa due to the leadership of Publius Cornelius Scipio. The Second Punic War was lost and Hannibal sued for peace terms. The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. Hannibal desperately tried to conquer a port city, notably Neapolis (Naples) and Tarentum (Taranto), but all attempts failed, as did repeated attacks on Nola. Moreover, this was the first time that Rome had expanded into territories outside of Italy which was pivotal in the development of the Roman Republic, and furthermore the Rome Empire, as it marks the beginning of an imperial Roman power (Rickard, 2001). After immense material and human losses on both sides the Carthaginians were defeated. Second Punic War 218 B.C. Hannibal once again released Italian prisoners but dealt harshly with Roman captives to emphasise he was at war with only the latter and local communities were welcome to join him. The outcome of the First Punic War was a resounding victory to Rome and the Carthage leadership signing a peace treaty advising as such. Cartwright, M. (2016, May 29). Cite This Work ‘God has given to man no sharper spur to victory than contempt of. Carthaginian War Elephantsby The Creative Assembly (Copyright). The Second Punic War (also called the Second Carthaginian War) was the second of three conflicts, known collectively as “The Punic Wars,” fought between the ancient powers of Rome and Carthage — a powerful city and imperial entity located across the Mediterranean from Southern Italy in modern-day Tunisia. What were the outcomes of the second Punic War? The Start of the First Punic War. The Second Punic War was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. Ancient History Encyclopedia. These commanders were Sempronius, at the Trebbia River, Flaminius, at Lake Trasimene, Paullus, at Cannae, and Scipio, at Zama. One of the most noteworthy battles fought by the Romans are the Punic wars, a series of three battles that span roughly between 264 B.C.E and 146 B.C.E. Roman Beach Attackby The Creative Assembly (Copyright). Last modified May 29, 2016. Another victory came near Lake Trasimene in June 217 BCE where 15,000 Romans were killed and 10,000 captured. The battle is referred to as ‘the battle of Zama’ because that town was on Hannibal’s route to the battlefield. 12 Dec 2020. Indeed, the conflict between the two nations of Rome, Implementing A New Paradigm Of Strategic Planning, Howard Gardner 's Theory On Multiple Intelligences, Understanding The Development Of Monotheism. Over the course of more than a century the two most powerful nations in the Mediterranean battled for supremacy. Almost inevitably, Mago was unable to join forces with Hannibal and his army was defeated in Cisalpine Gaul in 203 BCE. 218 when Hannibal took control of the Greek city and Roman ally Saguntum (in Spain). The Barcid was the main driver of the conflict between Carthage and Rome. They had long since had control of the old Phoenician colonies there, and it had already proven a rich source of silver. The answer was Spain. License. These defeats now put the city of Carthage itself in danger and necessitated the return of Hannibal from Italy to defend the homeland. Hannibal and Second Punic War General . In the following paragraphs, Carthage and Rome will be described in how each came to power, as well as the outcome of the conflict in terms of strength and increase in naval power. The First Punic War had shown that Rome could not be defeated from the outside, but perhaps fighting in its own territory and stirring up rebellions, it might be defeated from within. The clock was ticking and Rome had time on their side. The Second Punic War The Second Punic War happened between 218 BC and 201 BC. To subtract these influences from our ethos would leave a cavernous hole in our western identities. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. Books The influence of the Punic Wars on Western Civilization. Carthage sent an army to Liguria in northern Italy in 205 BCE. Scipio fielded 30,000 infantry and 5,500 cavalry, which included 6,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry from Masinissa. Their adversaries known as the Carthaginians were an advanced, time Rome expanded its’ empire and grew in power, it also had many rivals to that power. Rather, his campaigns in Italy sought to compel Rome to recognise Carthage’s claim on its empire. The final outcome of the Second Punic War was the defeat of Hannibal and the conquest of Carthage. In the Shadow of the Furies: A Novel of the Second Punic War, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. In the summer of 202 BCE, the war was very much back on again and the two sides would clash in one final decisive battle. Hamilcar Barca was recalled from Sicily and he joined Hanno the Great, who had recently made significant conquests in Libya, to quash the rebellion. Hannibal rose to become a great leader of the Carthaginians that can be regarded as a huge spectacle of the war. Second Punic War, also called Second Carthaginian War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. Fabius knew that, as at Cannae, Hannibal might win direct confrontations, but he could be worn down by blocking his supplies by sea and entrapping him in Italy. Neither could Hasdrubal support him from Spain nor Carthage by sea. Without a significant fleet and having lost their strategically important fortresses in Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia, the Carthaginians had to look elsewhere for a source of money to fund their armies. Then in 221 BCE a new face arrived on the scene: Hannibal, eldest son of Hamilcar Barca. Carthage made overtures for peace in 203 BCE, perhaps only to allow Hannibal time to come back home as indicated by their treatment of a Roman transport fleet blown off course in 202 BCE. Their replacement in Spain was the proconsul Publius Cornelius Scipio whose later exploits would allow him to add an ‘Africanus’ to his name. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars between 264 and 146 BC fought by the states of Rome and Carthage.The First Punic War broke out in Sicily in 264 BC as a result of Rome's expansionary attitude combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to the island. Rome entered the Second Punic War as the dominant city in Italy..., yet emerged as a world power'. A similar sized army was sent in an unsuccessful attempt to take Sardinia back for Carthage. this was the beginning of a real 'empire'. - 202 B.C., Hannibal decides to attack Rome, Sneaks through Gaul with 60,000 troops and 60 Elephants, Wreaks havoc in Rome for 15 years, Roman general named Scipio attacked Carthage making Hannibal come back to Carthage The Second Punic War is known as Hannibal’s War or against Hannibal. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Accordingly, this war has captured, The Punic Wars were clashes between titans and were arguably the largest wars of the time period as the two participants were some of the most powerful nations of the time. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. Macedonia, Syracuse and several Numidian kingdoms were drawn into the fighti The Second Punic War was often known as Hannibal’s War in Rome.It was in a real sense the personal war of Hannibal. Saguntum was retaken but both Roman commanders, P. Cornelius Scipio and Gn. Hannibal had defeated several large Roman armies, but Rome itself, as in the First Punic War, seemed immune to the losses. The War with Hannibal: The History of Rome from Its Foundation, Books... Hannibal’s War: A Military History of the Second Punic War. Hannibal, along with a massive army and the inclusion of elephants, fought a battle against the Roman army at Ticinus, Trebia and Trasimene. Carthage was in a difficult situation after the defeat of the First Punic War. Hannibal’s mix of Italian veterans and new recruits numbered some 45,000 men and included 2,000 Numidian cavalry from their ally Tychaeus. His cleverness and tact were appreciated even by the opposing Romans. The Second Punic War or the Hannibalic War lasted sixteen years from 218 BC to 202 BC and was fought between the two major powers of Rome and Carthage. Hannibal’s troops fought well, especially the veterans placed in the rear line of three, but the 80 Carthaginian war elephants were easily dealt with by Scipio, who had placed his legionaries so as to create channels which allowed the animals to pass through when they charged. Macedon too was brought into the war. Realising they were up against one of history’s greatest commanders, Rome changed tactics and adopted a policy of avoiding Hannibal in direct battle, instead fighting only his allies. At the time, they were one of the largest wars that had ever taken place. Outcomes from the Second Punic War The second Púnic war (herein after referred to as, “the War”) came to a close in 201 BCE, following Scípio’s victory over Hánnibal at the battle of Záma. Accordingly, Hannibal left Hasdrubal Barca (son of Hamilcar Barca) in charge of things in Spain and audaciously crossed the Alps in 15 days. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. He secured Spain with an army of about 16,000 men under the command of Hasdrubal and took 80,000 infantry, 12,000 Numidian and Iberian cavalry and a number of elephants with him on his march. Hannibal’s father had made his son swear never to be a friend of Rome, and with this solid platform of wealth and arms, he did not disappoint for the commander, still only 26, would become Rome’s greatest ever foe. Rome’s, interpretations and perceptions, Hannibal is infamous for leading the Carthaginian army and a squadron of elephants athwart the Southern European region and the Alps Mountains against the Roman Empire, who were manifested as the most powerful army, in the Second Punic War. Early in the spring of 218 BC, Hannibal set out from Carthago Nova, … Brief history of governance In the Second Punic War, various Roman commanders faced Hannibal, leader of the forces of Carthaginians, their allies, and mercenaries.Four major Roman commanders made a name for themselves in the following main battles of the second Punic War. The 25-year old general sailed from Ostia and quickly made his mark on the war by a shock capture of the main Carthaginian supply base and treasury in Spain, Carthago Nova (modern Cartagena) in 209 BCE. 20,000 Carthaginians had fallen while Rome suffered fewer than 5,000 fatalities. Meanwhile, Rome seized control of Sardinia which had been Carthage’s most important source of grain. As the Second Punic War began (218 BC), Hannibal first conquered northern Spain. The Punic Wars were a defining moment in the expansion of the Roman Republic, with the Second Punic War (218 – 201 BC (Grant, 1960)) playing the part of a corner stone in the bridge to create the powerful Roman Empire. This may have been because he lacked outside support but also because it was probably never his intention to annihilate Rome. The Romans also took possession of southern Spain. The Second Punic War, fought between the Romans and the Carthaginians is no exception. The result of this spectacular campaign was that most of the city-states of southern Italy defected to the Carthaginian cause, including Italy’s second most important city, Capua. Scipio marched to meet them, and after three days of merely observing each other, the battle commenced. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. the war left Rome in control - for the first time - of Cisapline Gaul, Sicily, Sardinia and Spain (which they decided to keep) - i.e. Before heading to Italy, he left his brother Hasdrubal in southern Spain and Hanno in the north. In 264 BC to 146 BC the Romans were involved in a prolonged war with the Carthaginians, known as the Punic War. Spain, the original flashpoint of the war, was now cleared of Carthaginian forces. If Carthage had defeated Rome, the world would have been much different and very likely it would have been a much darker place after significant Carthage influence. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Second_Punic_War/. The two commanders actually met in person in a conference where Hannibal perhaps requested a peace settlement but Scipio was probably keen to end the long war with a showpiece battle and earn himself a triumph back in Rome. Syphax would later defect to the Carthaginians, and the Roman Senate was initially against an invasion, but eventually Scipio got his backing and was ready to strike at the soft underbelly of the Carthaginian held territories in Africa, just as Hannibal was doing in southern Italy. Scipio then made allies of two Numidian princes, Syphax and Masinissa, in preparation for his plan to take the war to Africa. The Romans took over the Carthaginian mantle as the rulers of the seas and so, if Carthage were to wrest control back from its arch-enemy, it would have to fight on land, and that required money, lots of it. He invaded ever deeper inland and then besieged and conquered Saguntum (modern Sagunto, just north of Valencia), a long-time ally of Rome, in 219 BCE. It lasted between 218 and 201 BC. This action had the consent of the Carthaginian government but it would prove one move too far for the Romans who, having by now dealt with the troublesome northern Gauls and Illyria, demanded Hannibal be handed over for suitable punishment. Causes of the Second Punic War The Second Punic war “was the greatest and most dangerous one Rome was compelled to fight on their way to the conquest of the Mediterranean.” With 17 years of battle causing heavy casualties to be suffered on both sides, the Second Punic War has proven to be an important time period in the Roman and Carthaginian empires. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the Romans had their own great general Scipio Africanus, an… Carthage had been colonized by the Phoenicians, and came to be a powerful capital, While the governments of Rome and Carthage around the times of the Punic wars might look similar as drawn in organisational chart fashion, reflecting structural similarities, there were important differences in the allocation of responsibilities, concepts of citizenship and the scope and exercise of power. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. This huge force moved towards Utica to relieve the siege in 203 BCE. However, Rome had to fight for it’s power and position; often against impressive rivals. After three bad losses worse was to follow for Rome in August 216 BCE when Hannibal, moving into southern Italy, won a great victory against a much larger opposing army (80,000 men) at Cannae in Apulia (modern Puglia) in the heel of the Italian peninsula. August – Hannibal conquered Catalonia. At the same time in Italy, Hannibal was still holding out despite facing armies twice the size of his own force. Hannibal is overly expressed and given light to throughout his career and conquest in Italy by prominently well-renowned historians, including: Titus Livy, who was considered as the least reliable source as he was tremendously reliant on other, The Punic Wars were some of the most important wars throughout all of history. The most significant and decisive of the three was the second Punic War, where Hannibal nearly succeeded in conquering the Roman world. On Sicily, the Carthaginians lost their useful ally, Syracuse. The Start of the Second Punic War 218 BC. Territories During the Second Punic Warby Javierfv1212 (CC BY-SA). Scipio Africanus the Elderby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). After Scipio sent a force to establish Masinissa on the throne and capture Syphax, the Numidian threat was removed. Click card to see definition The Roman fleets and legions achieved victory over the Carthaginians in 241 B.C., adding western Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica to the growing Roman Empire Click again to see term … Led by Mago, Hannibal’s brother, the 14,000-strong force suffered from an inability to land closer to Hannibal’s army because of Roman naval dominance and their control of the major ports. The biggest spectacle of the Second Punic War was the rise of Hannibal … Related Content It began in 218 B.C., and continued through 201 B.C. Rome then could establish firm control over the island by 210 BCE. The Romans insisted on Carthage giving up its entire fleet (except a paltry 10 ships), all elephants, and all Roman prisoners. This is an incomplete list of battles of the Second Punic War, showing the battles on the Italian peninsula and some in Africa, in Sicily and Hispania. Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 29 May 2016 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Both Syracuse and Tarentum defected to Carthage in 214 and 212 BCE respectively, but Hannibal was being left without support in Italy. The strategy of Fabius, although interrupted occasionally by zealous commanders eager for glory in their one year of office as consul, was slowly working and, relentlessly, the Romans backed Hannibal into an ever-smaller pocket so that by 207 BCE he controlled only Bruttium. Rome might have feared a land battle but they were still masters of the seas, and this meant that Hannibal could not be resupplied. Then, in 204 BCE, with a force of around 30,000 men and 440 ships, he crossed to North Africa in three days. The expected break-up of Rome’s hegemony and a mass Gaul uprising did not happen. In 205 BCE, after being appointed consul, Scipio crossed the Mediterranean to Sicily and strengthened his army. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Battle of Mylae. This was the so-called ‘Fabian policy’ after Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, the dictator of 217 BCE, who earned the nickname ‘Cunctator’ (Delayer). Meanwhile, the war was widening. The Carthaginian general was faced with the problem that he simply did not have the manpower to keep control of all his newly acquired territory. Hannibal seemed unstoppable. A Roman army was then defeated in Gaul in 216 BCE, but their fortunes slowly began to improve. 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